On the 20th, Popova, the director of the Russian Federation Consumer Rights Protection and Public Welfare Supervision Bureau, said that 7 people were found to be infected with the H5N8 avian influenza virus in Russia. This is the world’s first human infection with the H5N8 avian influenza virus. So far, the medical profession has discovered that more than one type of avian influenza virus can be transmitted to humans. How should people prevent it?
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In December last year, a bird flu outbreak broke out in a farm in southern Russia. Experts from the Russian National Science Center for “Vector” Virology and Biotechnology recently isolated the genetic material of the H5N8 avian influenza virus from seven employees of the farm. This is the world’s first human infection with the H5N8 avian influenza virus. Popova said that the seven infected people have mild symptoms and there is no human-to-human transmission, but it cannot be ruled out that the virus will mutate and cause human-to-human transmission in the future.
The H5N8 avian influenza virus is a highly contagious virus between poultry. It was discovered for the first time in the world in 2014. In 2016, H5N8 avian influenza outbreaks occurred in many European countries, causing a large number of poultry and wild birds to die. Japan, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Namibia, India, the United States and other countries have all discovered H5N8 avian influenza virus.
The analysis report pointed out that wild birds may be at risk of infecting or spreading H5N8 avian influenza virus during their migration. Wild migratory birds carrying the H5N8 avian influenza virus may cause the feed of poultry farms to be contaminated with the virus. In addition, vehicles, equipment, pollutants, live animals, and animal products infected with the H5N8 avian influenza virus may also spread the virus.
Influenza viruses can be divided into three types: A, B, and C. Among them, influenza A can be divided into 1-16 subtypes according to the difference of influenza virus hemagglutinin protein (HA), and 1-9 subtypes according to the difference of viral neuraminidase protein (NA). Different subtypes of HA can be combined with different subtypes of NA to form more than one hundred influenza viruses of different subtypes.
For example, H7N9 and H5N1 are both influenza A viruses, but there are obvious differences. H7N9 and H5N1 are mainly transmitted in animals and occasionally infect humans. Experts from the World Health Organization said that H7N9 causes milder symptoms in poultry, is easy to spread among poultry and is difficult to detect, increasing the risk of human infection with the virus, while H5N1 is highly pathogenic to poultry.
Acute respiratory infections caused by certain subtypes of avian influenza viruses are called “human avian influenza.” The current subtypes of avian influenza viruses that infect humans are mainly H5, H7 and H9. Patients generally present with flu-like symptoms, such as fever, cough, and low sputum, and may be accompanied by systemic symptoms such as headache, muscle aches, and diarrhea. They can be spread through the respiratory tract or get sick from close contact with the secretions and excrements of infected poultry, or Get sick through contact with an environment contaminated with avian influenza virus.
WHO influenza experts said that the avian influenza virus is constantly mutating, and the avian influenza virus transmitted in wild birds and poultry has reached unprecedented diversity and geographic distribution; avian influenza viruses usually spread among birds, poultry and other animals , But this virus can also infect humans from time to time, such as H5N1, H7N9 and H5N6 avian influenza viruses.
How to prevent
The avian flu epidemic has made people “smell the chicken”. Can people eat chicken without worry? Facing the risk of avian influenza transmission, how should I contact and raise animals?
Regarding the first question, Bernard Vallett, the former director-general of the World Organization for Animal Health, believes that as long as the temperature is above 70 degrees Celsius, the bird flu virus will die. Therefore, avoiding the harm of bird flu and eating chicken should be two different things. The temperature at which people cook food is usually much higher than 70 degrees Celsius.
According to WHO experts, in areas with avian influenza epidemics, meat products can be safely eaten as long as they are properly cooked and handled during the preparation process. However, eating raw meat and under-cooked meat-containing products is a high-risk behavior. Should be avoided.
John McCauley, director of the World Influenza Center of the National Academy of Medicine in the United Kingdom, said that because the avian influenza virus is very sensitive to the outside temperature, normal cooking of poultry food materials is sufficient to kill the avian influenza virus that it may carry. Therefore, people are concerned about poultry and other related foods Don’t panic. For the public, reducing contact with live poultry, washing hands frequently, and maintaining good hygiene habits are very important to prevent bird flu.
Regarding how to contact and raise animals, the WHO reminds: In areas with avian influenza cases, if you need to enter the local live poultry market, you should avoid direct contact with live animals and the surfaces of objects that the animals have touched; if there are domestic pigs and chickens When waiting for animals, make sure that children do not come into contact with these types of animals that are sick or dead, and try to isolate different kinds of animals; after an animal becomes sick or dies, it should be reported to the local authorities immediately; it should not be slaughtered or eaten. Or dead animals.
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