Sentence = Shinobu Takahashi
Edinburgh Castle Photo: Panther Media / Image Mart
Witnesses of the history of the Scottish battle
Due to the state of emergency and the request to refrain from going out due to the corona sickness, not only overseas but also going out is being avoided. I would like to introduce Edinburgh Castle in Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland in the northeastern part of England, so that you can at least feel like traveling.
Edinburgh is a city that has produced world-class writers such as Conan Doyle, author of Sherlock Holmes, and Robert Louis Stevenson, who wrote “Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.” In recent years, it is also known that there is a cafe “The Elephant House” used for writing by JK Rowling, the author of the unprecedented blockbuster series “Harry Potter”.
The cityscape is divided into an old town reminiscent of the Middle Ages and a new town built based on city planning, and along with Edinburgh Castle, it is registered as a World Heritage Site as “Edinburgh’s Old Town and New Town”.
Edinburgh Castle is said to be the landmark of Edinburgh. It stands proudly on the top of a rocky mountain called “Castle Rock” and is still protected by guards in Scottish folk costumes.
Cityscape of Edinburgh Photo: Panther Media / Image Mart
From the castle, you can see the city of Edinburgh under your eyes, and you can look up at the castle from anywhere in the city. This is because it is called a landmark.
Mary Stuart (1542-1587), the tragic Scottish Queen of Scotland (1542-1587), who fought for the right to succeed to the throne with Queen Elizabeth I of England, who was the setting for many historical events, later became both Scotland and England. It is also this castle that gave birth to James VI (James I in England), the first unified king of Scotland.
Edinburgh Castle is also known as the “Witness of the History of the Battle of Scotland.”
The stage of the war, including the War of Independence with England, which will be described later, the Religious Reform War (1559 to 1560), the Civil War between the Queen and the Royal Party (1570 to 1573), the Occupation of Cromwell (1650), and the Revolutionary War. It has been repeatedly destroyed, rebuilt and expanded. Therefore, the castle was built in the early 7th century, but many of the existing buildings were built after the latter half of the 18th century.
Conflict with the great power England
Scotland is now one of the countries that make up the United Kingdom (the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), which we call the “United Kingdom”, but was once an independent country as the “Kingdom of Scotland”.
The Kingdom of Scotland is said to have been formed in 1034 by the descendants of the Scottish people who migrated from Ireland in the 6th century by annexing the surrounding areas.
The history of the kingdom is also the history of fierce conflict with England. Since the beginning of the country, there have been countless battles over territory and hegemony.
Although less powerful than the great power of England, the Scottish people have fought with an indomitable spirit. The severity of the battle was so severe that it was said that “no Scottish king died peacefully in bed.”
Not far from the Tweed River, which borders England, Edinburgh Castle, which stands on the ground where it was said that “the one who controls Edinburgh controls Scotland,” was occupied by the English army in the 13th century when the conflict intensified, and the Scottish forces Follows the history of regaining.
In the fierce battle with England, a number of heroes were born in Scotland. Among them, the most respected are William Wallace (1272? -1305) and Robert the Bruce (1274-1329), who are described below.
Two guardian deities guarding Edinburgh Castle
On the walls of the main gate of the castle, statues of men are set on each of the left and right sides.Decorated like the guardian deity of the castle, these two statues are Scottish independence heroes.、It depicts William Wallace and Robert the Bruce of Scotland.
Gate of Edinburgh Castle Photo = PIXTA
The movie “Braveheart” directed and starring Mel Gibson, which won five Academy Awards in 1996, has William Wallace as the main character and Robert Bruce also appears in an important role, so you know their activities. There will be many people.
Also in 2018, as Netflix original content, “Outlaw King Scotland Hero” with Robert the Bruce as the main character was produced.
At the end of the 13th century, Scotland was under armed control by King Edward I of England and suffered from oppression. Meanwhile, a leader who received the support of lower class people and lower aristocrats rebelled against England. That leader is William Wallace.
In 1297, Wallace, who led the volunteers, defeated the English army, which outperformed the troops, in the “Battle of the Stern Ring Bridge” and won a great victory.
The victory gave the Scottish side great hope, and Wallace was expected to be a Scottish liberator, but his breakthrough did not last long.
Wallace was defeated in the “Battle of Fall Kirk” in 1298, the following year, by the English army under the direct command of Edward I.
Wallace was then betrayed by his former subordinates and handed over to England where he was executed in a cruel manner. This was a show to deprive Scotland of rebellion, but it also ignited a rebellious spirit. In Scotland, one after another resisted England, saying “follow Wallace”, and Robert the Bruce appeared.
Bruce, a prestigious clan, succeeds to the throne as Robert the Bruce and challenges England. In the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, he defeated the English army with a clever tactic that maximized the advantage of the land, despite being inferior in strength.
He then succeeded in expelling the entire English army from Scotland, and in 1328 approved Scotland’s independence and his throne. Bruce is still very popular as an independent Scottish hero.
In addition to the statues of the two heroes, the castle also includes the successive Scottish crown stone “Stone of Scone”, which was carried to England by Edward I and returned in 1996, and King James IV of Scotland (1473 ~). The cannon “Mons Meg”, which 1513) fired at a castle in England, is on display, telling the history of the turmoil in Scotland.
Edinburgh Castle is a symbol of the indomitable spirit of the Scottsmen.
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